Arthington: A story of self-reliance, resiliance


Founding

Arthington is located on terrain that is hilly and uneven. It lies about two miles in from the St. Paul’s River and four miles northwest of Millsburg.1

The town is named in honor of Robert Arthington of Leeds, England, who funded the relocation of its founders from the southern United States.2

The site selected for Arthington was previously “impenetrable forest, six miles from any settlement.” According to Edward W. Blyden, the “only sounds to be heard were those made by birds on the tops of the lofty trees. There was no opening through the thick forest and dense undergrowth but the narrow path traveled for generations.”3

  • Tyler Mansion, built c. 1880s

The first group of 79 repatriates, led by Alonzo Hoggard, came from Windsor, North Carolina. In December 1869, they landed in Liberia. While the women and children stayed in Monrovia, the men began clearing the land in March 1870.4

They had to contend “with the unbroken wilderness, make clearings and build their huts, eating the fare which, after dividing with their families, was left to them from the [American Colonization] Society’s rations.”5

Like many repatriates from the U. S. after the Civil War, those who settled Arthington were dirt poor when they arrived. But, as noted by the <em>New Era</em> newspaper, they were “intelligent, active, industrious, and enterprising.”6

Three of their leaders were Alonzo Hoggard, Solomon York and Richard Rayner. Their progress was described by a visitor who arrived skeptical but left impressed.

Hoggard, for example, had “no assistance from native boys, no aid but four small sons, and with them alone he has planted out five thousand coffee trees and is cultivating one-and-a-half acres in potatoes, two acres in cassava, four acres in rice, one-half acre in eddies, besides many garden vegetables.” He also had eight hogs.7

Within three years, York had “nearly three thousand coffee trees growing, many bearing, and a large supply of cassavas, eddies, and other bread stuff.” Rayner, too, had planted a large lot of coffee. He also had “some acres of sugar-cane, some ginger, and his wife offers to sell a few barrels of Indian corn, the result of her own industry.”8

The first group was joined in 1871 by repatriates from Clayhill, South Carolina led by Jefferson Bracewell. The second group included Solomon Hill and June Moore, who together formed one of the country’s most prosperous trading companies.9

According to Edward W. Blyden, a frequent visitor to Arthington, some members of this second group knew the African ethnic groups to which they were connected. Hill was one. His mother was Gola, he said, and his father was from an ethnic group along the Niger 10

With the aid of his seven sons, Bracewell cleared and planted thirty acres in one year. A visitor in 1873 noted, he had “1,100 coffee trees, made his large crops of rice, potatoes, and eddoes, so as to supply his own family; imported a sugar-mill, and made his own sugar and syrup last season. He has made a large coffee nursery, and is now tanning some of the best leather used in this country.”11

Bracewell had been so perpetually busy, a reporter for the <em>New Era</em> newspaper joked, he had no time to get sick. “His wife and daughter spin and weave all the cloth that he and those boys wear, and he has built with his own hands his own dwelling house, outside store-house, weaving and loom house for his wife, and a house for tanning.”12

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Last nameFirst nameAgeOccupationEducStateCity/CountyShipMonthYear
AbrahamMary20None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AbrahamStephen26FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AbrahamSusan3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AshewHenry27FarmerReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1869
AshewRachel17None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1869
AskewAlfred14None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewAnna19None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewBenjamin9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewBryan30FarmerReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewCaroline28None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewCatherine11None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewCharles1None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewCheney16None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewCornelia3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewGeorge17None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewGeorge Dana2None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewHenry12None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewIsaac 40FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewJacob8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewMary30None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewMissouri2None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewMoning32NoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewNancy60None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewNancy S.5None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewPriscilla40None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewRhoda11None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewRoxanna15None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewSarah20None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewSimon8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
AskewWillis9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
BarnetCatherine18None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BarnetHenry L.8None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BarnetIsaac N.9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BarnetMartha36None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BarnetMary J.E.C.1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BarnetSamuel30FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BeasleyEdgar1None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
BeasleyMartha20None-FemaleNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
BiggerPeter14None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellDennis11None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellEmily14None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellHenry2None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellIsaac 10None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellJefferson47CarpenterWritesGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellJefferson Jr21FarmerWritesGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellJohn13None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellJoseph19None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellNathaniel10None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellPhillis1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellRhoda40None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellSarah2None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellScinther14None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BracewellVirginia1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
BrisbaneAbram11None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneAllen28FarmerSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneAnabella1None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneBetsy6None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1874
BrisbaneCaroline15None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneEli49FarmerSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneJennie8None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneMaria3None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1874
BrisbaneMaria45None-FemaleSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BrisbaneSarah23None-FemaleSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
BryantAaron1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantAndrew J.7None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantCharles30FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantCharles D.4None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantEdward C.9None-ChildSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantIsaac 2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantJames2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantJane H.7None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantJohn K.11None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantJoshua33FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantJoshua Jr10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantJoshua L.13None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantMartha L.32None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantMartha R.0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantMary E23None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
BryantSarah Ann9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CaldwellBetsy40None-FemaleSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
CaldwellJackson30FarmerSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
CarterEdie40NoneNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
CarterGrace9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
CarterMary19None-ChildReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
CathcartAdeline31None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartAndrew 77FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartEliza22None-FemaleReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartEmma2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartFrances40None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartKatie30None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartLaura16None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartLuster13None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartMary Ann0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartMiner38FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartScinthie21None-FemaleWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartSimon11None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CathcartWilliam7None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
ChestnutDella20None-FemaleSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
ChestnutJennie50None-FemaleSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
ChestnutSarah2None-ChildSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
ClemmonDaniel2None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ClemmonEmeline36None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ClemmonMarshall S15None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ClemmonWilliam8None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
CobbAmanda 35None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
CobbHenry E.3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
CobbVictoria10None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
CurrenceJohn4None-ChildSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CurrenceMary Anna1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CurrenceMary J27None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
CurrenceMinor28FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
De LyonJames22FarmerGAValdostaJasperNov1872
De LyonRobert18NoneGAValdostaJasperNov1872
DickersonCatherine42None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonFrances17None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonGrace14None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonLewis6None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonPolly21None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonSarah16None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonWilliam45FarmerNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DickersonWilliam Jr.10None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
DooleySamuel21FarmerSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
DouersPriscilla40None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
GarrisonAdelineNone-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonAnzi29FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonEmeline20None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonGeorge R.36FarmerWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonHarriet17None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonHenrietta29None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonJohn6None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonJoseph S.0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonLot10None-ChildWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonMiles33FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonPusley20FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonRachel20None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonSarah Jane0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonThomas1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
GarrisonWilliam3None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HartJudy30None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
HartLewis24FarmerWritesGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
HillAndrew 1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillEaster40None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillEaster7None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillElias52PreacherWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillEliza11None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillEmma9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillFrancis40FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillFrancis Jr.19None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillLucinda7None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillLucy5None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillMadison63FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillMartha35None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillMary Jane 16None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillMilas32FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillMilas2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillMollie6None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillPatsy23None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillPatsy0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillSolomon30BlacksmithNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HillTonyFarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
HoggardHastie55None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
HoggardIda1None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
HoggardMartin26FarmerReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
HoggardStephen10None-ChildWritesNCWindsorEdith RoseNov1871
HoggardViney10None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
HoggardViolet72None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorEdith RoseNov1871
HorneCelida Ann3None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
HorneFereby 19None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
HorneHannah1None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
HorneJeremiah24FarmerGAValdostaJasperNov1872
HorneJoseph2None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
InmanAlfred16GAValdostaJasperNov1872
InmanRobert12None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
JohnsonCharles W.26TeacherTeacherPAPhiladelphiaLiberiaJan1876
JonesHenry1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
JonesHenry38FarmerNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
JonesJefferson7None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
JonesMartha28None-FemaleReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawCharlotte8None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawHood40FarmerNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawJames1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawJohn5None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawLewanna10None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawMary25None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KershawReuben15None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
KingCharles19NoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
KnoxFrank5None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
KnoxNelson21FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
KnoxRachel A.1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
KnoxSarah10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
Lane Laura16None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
LeeRobert P.33FarmerVABerryvilleLiberiaJan1878
LemmonAbraham16None-ChildGAValdostaJasper1872
LemmonDavid8None-ChildGAValdostaJasper1872
LemmonFortune39FarmerGAValdostaJasper1872
LemmonJordan14None-ChildGAValdostaJasper1872
LemmonJulia9None-ChildGAValdostaJasper1872
LemmonLucretia35None-FemaleGAValdostaJasper1872
LemmonSilvia18None-FemaleGAValdostaJasper1872
MartinSimon29FarmerSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
MasonAbigail33None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonBarney H.1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonFrancis8None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonJohnson4None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonRoxanna9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonScott33FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonSilvanus10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MasonThomas8None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McCollumFannie31None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McCollumHannah19None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McCollumJames8None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McCollumJohn A.17None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McCollumSallie1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McCollumSamuel 40FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
McLainGeorge C. B.46BlacksmithTNCypress InnThomas PopeOct1874
McLainLucretia22None-FemaleTNCypress InnThomas PopeOct1874
MillerAaron40FarmerGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerAlonzo10None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerHarriet28None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerHenrietta39None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerHenrietta4None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerJacob6None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerLewis16None-ChildReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerLizzie5None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerLizzie11None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerMaria40None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerMatthew40FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerNancy8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerRachel12None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerReuben10None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerSamuel 13None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerSarah F.1None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerSherman3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillerSophia11None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
MillerValden18None-ChildReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillsDeliah1None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillsEmily29None-FemaleReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillsJohn27FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MillsMajor3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellEliza8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellFrank2None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellHarryFarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellMatilda Ann9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellNancy6None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellRachel0None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellRobert10None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MitchellSamuel 19None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolconda1870
MitchellVenus35None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
MooreAdeline23None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreDavid10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreElphonso C.9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreJames S.1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreJohn C.30FarmerWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreJune26FarmerWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreMartha A.27None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreMary Bell1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreSamuel B.5None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreSamuel E.9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreSinthea A.6None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MooreWallace F.3None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
MorrowAlexander26FarmerMSOkolonaLiberiaJan1878
MorrowEli0None-ChildMS OkolonaLiberiaJan1878
MorrowGeorge23FarmerMSOkolonaLiberiaJan1878
MorrowMelissa20None-FemaleMSOkolonaLiberiaJan1878
MorrowWilliam1None-ChildMSOkolonaLiberiaJan1878
MountainAmelia35None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorEdith RoseNov1871
MountainPenelope J.11None-ChildWritesNCWindsorEdith RoseNov1871
MountainPeter41FarmerWritesNCWindsorEdith RoseNov1871
NelsonEliza16None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
NelsonRachel55None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyAnderson37FarmerGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyClarissa13None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyGeorge2None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyJulia7None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyMartha0None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyPeggie6None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeySusan35None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
ObeyWallace11None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
OutlawPenny35None-FemaleReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
Page A. M.21TeacherTeacherMSOkolonaLiberia1878
PartlowEmily A.19None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
PartlowMary54None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
PartlowMary10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
PonderEli22FarmerWritesGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
PonderGrace20None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
PonderIsaiah2None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
PonderLevi1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
PonderNancy50None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
RaynerBenjamin13None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerCharles5None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerMargaret2None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerMarina11None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerMary16None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerNancy42None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerPriscilla9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerRichard47FarmerReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerRichard0None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RaynerTempa8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RobertsonJames21FarmerWritesGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
RoulhacCharles46FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacClarissa25None-FemaleNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacEdney5None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacGrace30None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacHannah70None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacJames30FarmerReadsNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacJames E.3None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacJames Henry13None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacJohn2None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacJohn B.37FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacJohn T.8None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacKeziah35None-FemaleNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacMartha A.12None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacMary M.1None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacPeytonFarmerNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacRichard8None-ChildNoneNCWindsonGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacRose40None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacSarah J.19None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacWilliam T.10None-ChildNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
RoulhacWrighteyn17None-ChildReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
SimpsonThomas15None-ChildWritesSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
SmithBarbara50None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
SmithJacob99FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
SmithJane16None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
SmithMargaret R.40None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateAlfred38FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateAndrea11None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateEla15None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateJames Alex1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateMadison7None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TatePolly35None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateRachel19None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateRobert40FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateSamuel1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TateSarah19None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
TayloeAmanda 8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloeHenry15None-ChildReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloeJane3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloeJulius C.30FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloeLucy25None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloeMary18None-ChildReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloePamalia9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TayloeSamuel45FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
ThomasonCharles E. H.0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
ThomasonJohn F.2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
ThomasonRussell28FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
ThomasonSarah J.29None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
ThomasonThomas A.5None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
ThompsonDavid5None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
ThompsonGeorge21FarmerPAPhiladelphiaThomas PopeOct1874
ThompsonThomas23FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
ThompsonVina27None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
TurkettAndrew 38FarmerNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
TurkettAnnice11None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
TurkettCornelia1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
TurkettEdith40None-FemaleNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
TurkettMary15None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
TurkettMoses8None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
TurnerRobert Henry19NCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WalkupEliza Jane1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupJohn19None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupLevinia11None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupMartha Ann33None-FemaleReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupMary Ellen3None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupNancy10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupPerry J.0None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WalkupScinthie13None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WarsawJane9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WarsawPeter20FarmerNoneNCPlymouthGolcondaNov1870
WarsawRhoda50None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WarsawThaddeus42FarmerNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WarsawTurner2None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WashingtonToby29FarmerNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonAnna1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonCharles13None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WatsonDavid B.1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonEliza J.17None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonEmeline20None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonFrancis8None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonHannah8None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonHenry J.62FarmerNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonJohn1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonJohn I.10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonJoseph21BlacksmithReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonLydia18None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMahala9None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WatsonMajor D. S.2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMargaret I.24None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMargaret J.1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMartha E.6None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMary2None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMary Ann 39None-FemaleReadsNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WatsonMary Jane1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMary L.3None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WatsonMcEden19None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonMinerva C.4None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonNelson17None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WatsonPeter69BlacksmithNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonPeter Edward5None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WatsonPhillis AnnNone-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonRufus Andrew16None-ChildReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonSallie58None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonSallie6None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonSarah20None-FemaleNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonSilvanus22FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WatsonVina15None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WestonAmanda 10None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WestonCaroline 35None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WestonHarriet8None-ChildNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WestonJohanna70None-FemaleNoneNCWindsorGolcondaNov1870
WhiteAnn9None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteBenjamin1None-ChildMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteCaeser39FarmerWritesGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteCassandra30None-FemaleMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteIsaac11None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteJonas9None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteKatie12None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteLevi5None-ChildMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteMary3None-ChildMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteMary8None-ChildReadsGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteMilly70None-FemaleMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteOlney N.10None-ChildMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteRichard7None-ChildMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteSamuel33FarmerMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteSimmie1None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteWebster25FarmerMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WhiteWesley2None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
WhiteWilliam12None-ChildMSAberdeenLiberiaJan1878
WilliamsJohn26FarmerNoneVARichmondEdith RoseNov1871
WilliamsLucinda36None-FemaleARPhilipps CoLiberiaMay1880
WilsonJames22FarmerSCColumbiaJasperNov1876
WrightAndrew 7None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightAndrew B.7None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WrightBristow26FarmerWritesFLEllavilleEdith RoseNov1871
WrightCaroline 11None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightCharity21None-FemaleNoneFLEllavilleEdith RoseNov1871
WrightCharles9None-ChildFLJacksonvilleJasper1873
WrightCharlotte11None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightClarissa0None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightDavid39FarmerGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightElijah10None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WrightEliza2None-ChildNoneFLEllavilleEdith RoseNov1871
WrightEllick5None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightFereby2None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightHannah35None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightHannah30None-FemaleFLJacksonvilleJasper1873
WrightHarriet29None-FemaleReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WrightHilyard30FarmerReadsSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WrightJames9None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WrightLeah1None-ChildNoneFLEllavilleEdith RoseNov1871
WrightLondon43FarmerGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightLouis8None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightMargaret5None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightMary12None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightMary38None-FemaleGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightNancy11None-ChildFLJacksonvilleJasper1873
WrightPeter39PreacherFLJacksonvilleJasper1873
WrightPeter Jr.9None-ChildFLJacksonvilleJasper1873
WrightRichard15None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightRufus Lee1None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightSamuel16None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightSamuel1None-ChildFLJacksonvilleJasper1873
WrightThomas1None-ChildNoneSCClay HillEdith RoseNov1871
WrightThomas13None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
WrightWilliam9None-ChildGAValdostaJasperNov1872
YerbyLaura19None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
YerbyLawson10None-ChildNoneGAValdostaEdith RoseNov1871
AR, Dec 1869, p.366; AR, Nov 1874 p.350; AR, Dec 1870, p.373; AR, Apr 1878, p.53; AR, Jan 1877, p.27; AR, Dec 1873, p.371; AR, Dec 1871, p. 355

SOURCES: African Repository, Dec 1869, p.366; African Repository, Nov 1874 p.350; African Repository, Dec 1870, p.373; African Repository, Apr 1878, p.53; African Repository, Jan 1877, p.27; African Repository, Dec 1873, p.371; African Repository, Dec 1871, p. 355.

Throughout this website, persons of African descent who came to the area now known as Liberia are referred to as “repatriates.” It means some who settles, whether by deportation or choice, in a country perceived as his or her ancestral home. This definition is closer to the late Latin etymology of the term as in re- (back) and patria (land of the father).

“Repatriates” is deliberately used instead of  “settlers” and “colonists,” which have been previously employed by some scholars for political reasons. They sought two objectives. First, equate Liberians who came from the New World with whites colonizationists around the world. Second, drive a wedge between the descendants of Liberians who came from the New World and those who did not.

But African Americans who emigrated to Africa enjoyed cultural and historical ties with that continent, which made the relationship different from that of, say, Britons who settled in Australia or Afrikans who colonized South Africa.

_____________________________________________________________

Even more successful was Hill, a carpenter, cabinet maker, blacksmith, engineer and farmer who could neither read nor write. He arrived in 1871 with $30, all of which was spent to build his first temporary residence. By 1889, a visitor called him “probably the most independent man” in West Africa.13

Hill planted 180 acres of coffee alone, along side foodstuff.

In 1889, he had “more than fifty bags of coffee from last season, which he has been under no necessity to sell. It is now thoroughly cured and will command a high price. He will produce ten thousand pounds of coffee this season, besides other agricultural articles.”14

Hill also built his own house, “a large two story frame building with verandah and attic, and outhouses …some covered (roof and sides) with corrugated iron.”15

A visitor called the furniture Hill built “specimens of first-rate workmanship, and being made of native wood procured on his land, is far superior to anything of its kind he could import. His skill would command patronage in any city in the world.”16

As a blacksmith, Hill made his own tools. “His lathe for turning wood and iron was constructed by himself in a very simple but effective style.”17

One of his greatest contributions was as a mentor to area youth. According Edward W. Blyden, who visited in 1889, two Kpelle youth trained by Hill had “their own coffee farms and live in neat frame houses, cultivating from thirty to fifty acres of land. One of them has recently married a highly esteemed colonist, widow of one of the late prominent settlers.”18

A <em>New Era</em> reporter noted that Rev. Moore seemed to be competing with Hill, his neighbor and business partner, in planting coffee and foodstuff. In 1873, Moore had 700 coffee trees and a large coffee nursery. He was also self-sufficient in potatoes, cassava and eddoes.19

Moore reportedly received most of his religious training in Liberia. He told a visitor he knew “nothing of religion in America. He belonged to a Presbyterian family, but he had no religious impressions till he came to Africa. Here he became converted, joined the Baptist church, entered the ministry, and has recently been elected pastor of the church.”20

In 1889, the church was planning to build a larger sanctuary. The original building was now too small for the congregation, many of whom were Indigenous Africans.21

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By the early 1880s Arthington was the site of the AME Mount Carmel Church, the Lutheran Muhlenberg Mission school and a Baptist church that included 66 “native” congregants, with native students in the schools.22

In 1883, the local Union League Society was incorporated, naming George Askie, S.R. Hoggard, Solomon York, James H. Rawlhac, McGilbert Lawrence, W. L. Askie, S.W. Askie, Robert Mitchell and W. L. Carter].23

Four years later, the national legislature gave seventy five acres of land for the Anna Morris School of Arthington, with Edward S. Morris as sole trustee.24

In 1888 it was estimated that Arthington alone was producing large quantities of ginger and other produce for local markets, along with 100,000 pounds of coffee for export, 10 percent of which was by Hill and Moore.25

Also that year, Arthington and neighboring Clay Ashland were in the grips of an enthusiastic temperance movement that resulted in a law banning the sale of liquor in the two towns, both major producers of sugar cane.26

Arthington and other St. Paul’s River towns benefited from the technical innovations of the local Muhlenburg Mission, a vocational school led by Rev. John Day. When Edward W. Blyden visited in 1889, the school’s large workshop was being conducted by Clement Irons, who emigrated in 1878 from Charleston, South Carolina.27

Blyden noted, “they build arts and wheelbarrows, run steam engines, make farming implements, &amp;c. Mr. Irons has constructed a steamboat for the river of native timber. It was launched from the mission a few weeks ago by the pupils only — 75 of them took hold of it and pushed it from the mission hill down into the water.” He called the school “a model for missions in this country.”28

In 1893, a fifth regiment was added to the national militia, with troops to be drawn from Arthington, along with Clay-Ashland, Louisianna, Millsburg, Harrisburg, Muhlenburg, White Plains, Robertsville, Crozerville, Bensonville and Careysburg.29

When the Saint Paul’s Baptist Church was incorporated in 1896, Rev. June Moore was pastor with deacons J.C. Taylor, Solomon Hill, E. Ponder, V.L. Miller, Henry Taylor and George Askie.30

At the time of his death on Dec. 25, 1898, Rev. June Moore was president of the Liberia Baptist Convention, which he and other successful farmers and traders had contributed significantly to making self-sufficient.31

In the 1905 elections, the TWP nominees for Montserrado were R. H. Jackson for the senate and C. R. Branch of Arthington, Henry Moses Ricks of Clay-Ashland, C. C. Porte of Crozierville and A. B. Mars of Paynesville for the House. The Dissatisfied Whigs, aligned with Coleman, endorsed R. H. Jackson, but put forward the names of J. B. Dennis of Monrovia, W. B. Gant of Brewerville, Z. N. Brown of New Georgia and George Dixon of Sasstown.32

In the early 1900s, as brass bands and fraternal lodges were proliferating in many coastal communities, Arthington was not to be left out. In 1916, the local Number One Brass Band was formed, with John Moore, band director; Johnny Bracewell, band master; W. H. Tyler, band instructor; Scott Carter, band leader; James Hoggard, financial secretary; Emma Tyler, band treasurer; Solomon Miller, boatswain; Thomas H. Tyler, band patron; and members: Joseph Bracewell and Jerry Jones.33

That same year, the Coleman’s Memorial Lodge No. 134, United Brothers of Friendship of Arthington was incorporated, naming Thomas H. Tyler, p.m.; June Moore, p.m.; W. H. Tyler, w. m.; H. W. Davies, d. m.; Willie A. Moore, w. s.; Francis Hill, assistance secretary; James Clarke, chaplain; David Moore, marshall; trustees: John Moore and Henry Hill; W. H. Tyes, treasurer; Charles R. Askie, pilot; and Lot Hill.34

The Saint Paul’s Baptist Church was reorganized in 1917-18, with Rev. R. B. Wicker, pastor; J. C. Taylor, sen.; Solomon Hill, sen.; George Askie, church clerk; Thomas H. Tyler, building treasurer; and deacons: George Askie, Eli Poner, Henry Tylor, E. Samuel Moore and Menford F. Smallwood.35

In 1935, the Queen Esther Household of Ruth No. 5743 of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows was formed. Listed as officers were L. N. B. Tyler, past most noble governor; Rebecca Bracewell, most noble governor; Mary Lawrence, right noble governor; L. A. Hill, recorder; G. B. Groove, noble governor and chamberlain; L. B. Turbett, shepherd and usher; W. H. Tyler, treasurer; H. M. Moore, worthy counsel; Hattie Brisbane, right senior steward; and trustees A. E. Diggs, A. E. Gall and P. J. Bracewell.36

Two years later, the legislature approved the “Pride of Arthington Temple” No. 137, Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, naming Beatrice A. Tyler, worthy princess; Salomi Moore, worthy vice princess; Lillian Hill, secretary; L. B. Tucker, assitant secretary; W. H. Tyler, worthy treasurer; Lilly Mason, chaplain; Penelope Moore, zilla; Viola Tyes, marshal; Hannah Moore, senior marshal; trustees: June Moore, Willie Moore, Reginald L. Brown, Daniel B. Warner, Major M. Branch; sick committee: Julia A. Warner, Margaret Grove, Cordelia Moore, Lecretia Raynes and Nora Cooper; and members: Louise Mars, Elfreda Witherspoon, Mattie Branch, Harriet Trinity, Beatrice Moore, Eugenia Turkle and Dianah Obey.37

In 1938, Attorney General Louis A. Grimes in an arbitration ordered that the sum of $181.60 be paid to resident Charles Vanah Wright as compensation for use by the government of his house and entire premises as a “pest house” in 1929 for housing small pox cases.38

Researched and written by C. Patrick Burrowes

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